International new ventures (INVs) that pursue rapid internationalisation have received a growing amount of attention worldwide. This study, therefore, examined characteristics of INVs, and hence investigated empirically the relationships among the technological characteristics of INVs, the characteristics of their chief executive officers (CEOs) (i.e., global orientation), and their internationalisation such as the level of internationalisation. The findings of this study can be summarised as follows: all of the technological characteristics (e.g., technological capacity, imitation, innovation, and standardisation) have significant effects on the internationalisation of INVs. Furthermore, the CEO’s global orientation mediated the relationship between the technological characteristics and internationalisation. Read More ⊕
The main research objectives of this paper are the analysis of the influence of international market orientation and the management capabilities derived from that orientation on international new ventures’ (INVs) behavior. Foreign market geographical diversification and the commitment involved in entry modes are considered to reflect this international behavior. Thus existing International Entrepreneurship literature is developed by analyzing the behavior of INVs explaining and testing how international market orientation and management capabilities affect geographical diversification and the commitment involved in entry modes. The empirical study confirms this influence. Read more ⊕
This paper aims to show that, although there is no evidence of a generalized pattern within the internationalization process of Colombian firms, there are common features in the majority of the observed firms: the election of exportations as the main entrance tool, the entrance to countries within a short geographical and psychological distance, and the development of local strategic advantages that eventually replicate abroad. A poll and a structured interview were used, including numerical and categorical variables, followed by a cross analysis ofcases. It was also found that internationalization decisions operate under an ad-hoc basis and rely heavily on the experience and intuition of top decision-makers at the company level. Read more⊕
This guide⊕ explains the requirements of the import valuation system. It outlines the different valuation methods for determining the value on which customs duty on goods produced outside the EU and import VAT are calculated. It also provides links to sources of further help and advice
Part memoir, part crash-course in economic theory, this deeply engaging book by one of the world’s foremost economists looks at economic ideas through a personal lens. Together with an introduction to some of the central concepts in modern economic thought, Ariel Rubinstein offers some powerful and entertaining reflections on his childhood, family and career. In doing so, he challenges many of the central tenets of game theory, and sheds light on the role economics can play in society at large. The book is as thought-provoking for seasoned economists as it is enlightening for newcomers to the field.
Any time there is an economic crisis; there is the very real potential that its consequences for human welfare will be severe. Thus when the developed world plunged into such a crisis in 2008 and growth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) began to plummet, fears rose that the region will suffer rising unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, and infant mortality, among other things. This study confirms and quantifies many of the sobering links between crisis and poverty, but it also shows how powerful good policy in stable times is in attenuating those links. It thus underscores the need for sound growth policies, good macro prudential care, fiscal balance, low debt, reasonably flexible exchange rates, and the like to help prevent and manage crises. It equally shows how effective social protection responses built on adequate existing programs can be. This study documents the effects of the 2008-09 global financial crisis on poverty in 12 countries in the LAC region, and it comes away with six big picture messages, each with much nuance and many caveats that are explained briefly in this overview.