International new ventures (INVs) that pursue rapid internationalisation have received a growing amount of attention worldwide. This study, therefore, examined characteristics of INVs, and hence investigated empirically the relationships among the technological characteristics of INVs, the characteristics of their chief executive officers (CEOs) (i.e., global orientation), and their internationalisation such as the level of internationalisation. The findings of this study can be summarised as follows: all of the technological characteristics (e.g., technological capacity, imitation, innovation, and standardisation) have significant effects on the internationalisation of INVs. Furthermore, the CEO’s global orientation mediated the relationship between the technological characteristics and internationalisation. Read More ⊕
This paper aims to show that, although there is no evidence of a generalized pattern within the internationalization process of Colombian firms, there are common features in the majority of the observed firms: the election of exportations as the main entrance tool, the entrance to countries within a short geographical and psychological distance, and the development of local strategic advantages that eventually replicate abroad. A poll and a structured interview were used, including numerical and categorical variables, followed by a cross analysis ofcases. It was also found that internationalization decisions operate under an ad-hoc basis and rely heavily on the experience and intuition of top decision-makers at the company level. Read more⊕
Argentinean export growth was impressive during the recent economic boom (2003-2007). However, decomposing export growth reveals that the extensive margin (increases in exports of existing products to existing markets) dominates, while the intensive margin (increases in exports of new products or new markets) contributes little to export growth. Argentina’s trade product concentration has increased in the past 10 years, and the main export products remain overwhelmingly natural-resource intensive. The little diversification of non-primary exports limits the country s ability to weather a decline in export commodity prices. The country has had some success finding new export markets, especially in Latin America, but should seek to develop deeper trade relationships with high GDP export destinations such as the European Union and the United States. Another challenge going forward is the relatively low sophistication of exports and limited integration into the global production chains, falling behind regional competitors such as Brazil. This calls for policy measures to improve the ability of existing firms to innovate and compete successfully in global markets⊕.
This study investigates the creation of the thermoplastic vulcanizates industry as an example of innovation constructed within a mature industry, in this case, the petrochemicals industry. A characterization is made of this innovation process, identifying the technological and organizational dimensions that are inherent to it as well as the nature of the competencies and resources mobilized by the companies involved in the innovation.⊕ (2006). Do mature industries have their own innovation dynamics?: A reflection based on the development of the thermoplastic vulcanizates industry. Polímeros, 16(2), 12-19. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-14282006000200005
Any time there is an economic crisis; there is the very real potential that its consequences for human welfare will be severe. Thus when the developed world plunged into such a crisis in 2008 and growth rates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) began to plummet, fears rose that the region will suffer rising unemployment, poverty, malnutrition, and infant mortality, among other things. This study confirms and quantifies many of the sobering links between crisis and poverty, but it also shows how powerful good policy in stable times is in attenuating those links. It thus underscores the need for sound growth policies, good macro prudential care, fiscal balance, low debt, reasonably flexible exchange rates, and the like to help prevent and manage crises. It equally shows how effective social protection responses built on adequate existing programs can be. This study documents the effects of the 2008-09 global financial crisis on poverty in 12 countries in the LAC region, and it comes away with six big picture messages, each with much nuance and many caveats that are explained briefly in this overview.
The world economy is not what it used to be twenty years ago. For most of the 20th century, the world economy was characterized by developed (North) countries acting as ‘center’ to a ‘periphery’ of developing (South) countries. However, the recent rise of developing economies suggests the need to go beyond this North-South dichotomy. This tectonic re-configuration of the global landscape has brought about significant changes to countries in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. The time is ripe for an in-depth analysis of the dynamics and nature of LAC’s external connections. This latest volume in the World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies series will focus on the implications of these trends for the economic development of LAC countries. In particular, trade, financial, macroeconomic, and sectoral shifts, as well as labor-market aspects will be systematically analyzed.
The Caribbean Growth Forum (CGF) was thus designed to respond to these concerns: to be both a forum of dialogue to identify needed reforms, and a catalyst for the implementation of agreed reform priorities, creating the needed accelerators to make reforms happen, while keeping in mind the political economy factors that have impeded reforms in the past. Since inception, the CGF process has been solidly grounded on few core principles: (i) tailoring: the approach is based on locally defined problems and solutions (home grown); (ii) action-orientation: prioritization and sequencing of reforms (e.g., combining gradual reforms with longer term structural changes) and their translation into clear, achievable and measurable targets, dashboards and roadmaps for implementation; (iii) transparency: making both targets and the process public to increase participation and shared commitments, thus creating a routine culture of public reporting to track progress openly (introduce behavioral changes); (iv) flexibility: to ensure that the process allows for adjustments if targets are not reached and to create space for innovation; and (v) accountability: infusing a sense of shared responsibility across the coalition that is supporting change, thus moving from a blaming culture to a culture of finding solutions by doing; and, eventually, anchoring the process around a small group of responsible government officials and support them in delivering policies.